Mary Henderson Eastman 's Aunt Phillis's Cabin was one of the bestselling novels of the genre. The circumstantial evidence that Equiano was also African-American by birth and African-British by choice is compelling but not absolutely conclusive. ", London Metropolitan Archives; Clerkenwell, London, England; Whitefield's Memorial Church [Formerly Tottenham Court Road Chapel], Tottenham Court Road, Saint Pancras, Register of burials; Reference Code: LMA/4472/A/01/004. He proceeded, "When a trader wants slaves, he applies to a chief for them, and tempts him with his wares ... and accepts the price of his fellow creature's liberty with as little reluctance as the enlightened merchant". In 1792 he lodged with the society's founder Thomas Hardy. With the aid of Granville Sharp, Equiano tried to get Annis released before he was shipped from England but was unsuccessful. Anti-slavery writings were significant in the abolitionists' fight against slavery. Equiano was dismissed from the new settlement after protesting against financial mismanagement and he returned to London. Peanut gallery: The phrase typically refers to the cheapest seats in a theater, and … [20] His account surprised many with the quality of its imagery, description and literary style. The anti-Tom genre died off with the start of the American Civil War. :62 He used this name for the rest of his life, including on all official records; he only used Equiano in his autobiography.[5]. Equiano's personal account of slavery, his journey of advancement, and his experiences as a black immigrant caused a sensation on publication. Manchester, Eng. At his death on 31 March 1797, he was living in Paddington Street, Westminster. Britain refused to return the slaves, which the United States sought in peace negotiations. ", "Transcript Gustavus Vassa Provides for His Family PROB 10/3372", "'The Igbo Roots of Olaudah Equiano' by Catherine Acholonu", "Eboe, Country, Nation, and Gustavus Vassa's Interesting Narrative", "The Equiano Society: Information and Forthcoming Events", "Iconic Guyanese working to promote Caribbean heritage in Britain", "William Wilberforce, Olaudah Equiano and Thomas Clarkson", https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/heres-why-mary-seacole-and-other-inspiring-black-figures-should-stay-on-the-curriculum-8487142.html, "Civil rights veteran Jesse Jackson joins fight against curriculum changes", "Introducing Equiano, a subsea cable from Portugal to South Africa", "Grace Unshackled: The Olaudah Equiano Story", Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States, Barracoon: The Story of the Last "Black Cargo", Cotton Plantation Record and Account Book, Amazing Grace: An Anthology of Poems about Slavery, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Olaudah_Equiano&oldid=999378109, Converts to Protestantism from pagan religions, Nigerian expatriates in the United Kingdom, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 1789 Equiano moved to 10 Union Street (now 73, Equiano is honoured in the Church of England and remembered in its, In 2007, the year of the celebration in Britain of the bicentenary of the abolition of the slave trade, Equiano's life and achievements were included in the, A statue of Equiano, made by pupils of Edmund Waller School, was erected in, The head of Equiano is included in Martin Bond's 1997 sculpture, U.S. author Ann Cameron adapted Equiano's autobiography for children, leaving most of the text in Equiano's own words; the book was published in 1995 in the U.S. by, Equiano was portrayed by the Senegalese musician, Kent historian Dr Robert Hume wrote a children's book entitled. [40] The site of the chapel is now the American International Church. The following arguments were put forth in Southern books, pamphlets and newspapers to defend the institution of slavery: . 42, No. He was one of the leading members of the Sons of Africa, a small abolitionist group composed of free Africans in London. Susannah died in February 1796, aged 34, and Equiano died a year after that on 31 March 1797. Northup's story has become widely known from the Oscar-winning film, "12 Years a Slave," based on his searing account of life under the cruel system of Louisiana plantations. The Planter's Northern Bride by Caroline Lee Hentz was published two years after Uncle Tom's Cabin. Other historians also argue that the fact that many parts of Equiano's account can be proven lends weight to accepting his account of African birth. At this time, due to the excesses of the French Revolution, British society was tense because of fears of revolution. In Jason Young's 2007 short animated film. [24][25], Equiano was a prominent figure in London and often served as a spokesman for the black community. [2], These anti-Tom novels tended to feature a benign white patriarchal master and a pure wife, both of whom presided over childlike slaves in a benevolent extended-family-style plantation. Pascal favoured Equiano and sent him to his sister-in-law in Great Britain so that he could attend school and learn to read and write. The merchant urged Equiano to stay on as a business partner. The Other Slavery: The Uncovered Story of Indian Enslavement in America Andrés Reséndez. It was also the most traumatic experience endured by any generation of Americans. They were both kidnapped and taken far from their hometown, separated and sold to slave traders. The book was highly controversial and fanned the debate over slavery in the country. He continued to work at sea, travelling sometimes as a deckhand based in England. Myth One:The majority of African captives came to what became the United States. His lectures and preparation for the book were promoted by, among others, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon. Books in the genre attempted to show either that slavery was beneficial to African Americans or that the evils of slavery as depicted in Stowe's book were overblown and incorrect. The most common are: 1. Published in 1852, it sold 20,000 to 30,000 copies. [citation needed]. The address referred to A Caution to Great Britain and her Colonies by Anthony Benezet, founder of the Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage[19]. The entry in the register reads "Gustus Vasa, 52 years, St Mary Le bone". Equiano was befriended and supported by abolitionists, many of whom encouraged him to write and publish his life story. [38][39] His burial place has been lost. This time, Equiano refused and told his new owner that he would prefer to be called Jacob. Freed Negroes in Southern town shortly after the Civil War. This month marks 400 years since enslaved Africans were first brought to what is now the United States of America. The roots of the crisis over slavery that gripped the nation in 1860-1861 go back well before the nation’s founding. Vincent Carretta, "Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa? Enslaved as a child in Africa, he was taken to the Caribbean and sold as a slave to a Royal Navy officer. Seldom is one crucial portion of a memoir totally fabricated and the remainder scrupulously accurate; among autobiographers ... both dissemblers and truth-tellers tend to be consistent. In 1765, when Equiano was about 20 years old, King promised that for his purchase price of 40 pounds (equivalent to £5,500 in 2019) he could buy his freedom. [5] In a note in the book, Eastman proudly stated she was a descendant of the First Families of Virginia. Reformers were considered more suspect than in other periods. [17], Equiano left the Mosquito Coast in 1776 and arrived at Plymouth, England, on 7 January 1777. He and a few other slaves were sent on for sale in the Colony of Virginia. [35][36] He moved to John Street (now Whitfield Street), close to Whitefield's Tabernacle, Tottenham Court Road. History Slavery Myths Debunked The Irish were slaves too; slaves had it better than Northern factory workers; black people fought for the Confederacy; and other lies, half-truths, and irrelevancies. Many of the freedmen found it difficult to make new lives in London or Canada. Equiano embraced Christianity at the age of 14 and its importance to him is a recurring theme in his autobiography. The book was considered an exemplary work of English literature by a new African author. In the upstairs study in January 1773, John Ashley and 10 other men gathered to write what became known as the Sheffield Resolves. The village was in the southeastern part of present-day Nigeria. Slavery was good for the slaves; the slaveowners took on the burden of caring for the interests of inferior beings, seeing that they would be fed, clothed and given religious instruction. The novel focuses on the Revolutionary War and its aftermath through the lives of Captain Porgy and one of his slaves. He travelled throughout England, Scotland and Ireland promoting the book. New Light on an Eighteenth-Century Question of Identity", The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African, Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, Society for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully Held in Bondage, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade, Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies, Whitefield's Tabernacle, Tottenham Court Road, "Olaudah Equiano: Facts about his People and Place of Birth", "Equiano the African: Biography of a Self-made Man by Vincent Carretta", Douglas Chambers, "'Almost an Englishman': Carretta's Equiano", Paul E. Lovejoy, "Autobiography and Memory: Gustavus Vassa, alias Olaudah Equiano, the African", "Portrait of an African (probably Ignatius Sancho, 1729–1780)", "Church of St Andrew, Cambridge (1112541)", "Monument to Joanna Vassa in Abney Park Cemetery (1392851)", "The Plaisterers and the abolition of slavery", "Will of Gustavus Vassa or Olaudah Equiano, Gentleman of Addle Street Aldermanbury , City of London. 1 By James M. McPherson Enlarge An 1870 engraving of the Battle of Gettysburg, possibly Pickett s charge. He drew up his will on 28 May 1796. Simms' The Sword and the Distaff came out only a few months after Stowe's novel and contains a number of sections and discussions that clearly debate Stowe's book and view of slavery. However, Equiano found it dangerous and limiting to remain in the British colonies as a freedman. [1][3], According to his memoir, Equiano was born in Essaka, Eboe, in the Kingdom of Benin. By 1792, it was a best seller and had been published in Russia, Germany, Holland and the United States. Literary scholar Vincent Carretta argued in his 2005 biography of Equiano that the activist could have been born in colonial South Carolina rather than Africa, based on a 1759 parish baptismal record that lists Equiano's place of birth as Carolina and a 1773 ship's muster that indicates South Carolina. He married an English woman and lived with her in Soham, Cambridgeshire, where they had two daughters. Thus it is not accidental that even the briefest code of a relatively uncomplicated slave-owning society was likely to contain at least a few articles on slavery. Democrats favored slavery's expansion, but the Republican Party was founded in the 1850s more on geographic grounds than to counter Dems. Roman slavery wasn’t race-based but was brutal all the same (see the fate of slave gladiators, among many other atrocities). It went through nine editions in his lifetime and helped gain passage of the British Slave Trade Act 1807, which abolished the slave trade. The Amistad Rebellion: An Atlantic Odyssey of Slavery and Freedom In his account, Equiano gives details about his hometown and the laws and customs of the Eboe people. Specifically, he became involved in working in Sierra Leone, a colony founded in 1792 for freed slaves by Britain in West Africa. [9] Soon after, the elder daughter died at the age of four, leaving the younger child, Joanna Vassa, to inherit Equiano's estate when she was 21; it was then valued at £950 (equivalent to £73,000 in 2019). They were resettled in the Caribbean, in Nova Scotia, in Sierra Leone in Africa, and in London. He included his marriage in every edition of his autobiography from 1792 onwards. [36], Following publication in 1967 of a newly edited version of his memoir by Paul Edwards, interest in Equiano revived; additional editions of his work have been published since then. Two years later, Irving recruited Equiano for a project on the Mosquito Coast in Central America, where he was to use his African background to help select slaves and manage them as labourers on sugar-cane plantations. The use of violence, threats or coercion to transport, recruit or harbour people in order to exploit them for purposes such as forced prostitution, labour, criminality, marriage or organ removal. Her novel also focused on the fear of a slave rebellion, especially if abolitionists did not stop stirring up trouble. Olaudah Equiano (/əˈlaʊda/) (c. 1745 – 31 March 1797), known for most of his life as Gustavus Vassa (/ ˈ v æ s ə /), was a writer and abolitionist from, according to his memoir, the Eboe region of the Kingdom of Benin (today southern Nigeria). Since the late 20th century, when his autobiography was published in a new edition, he has been increasingly studied by a range of scholars, including from his homeland. Pascal renamed the boy "Gustavus Vassa", after the 16th-century King of Sweden Gustav Vasa[9] who began the Protestant Reformation in Sweden. [21], Several events in Equiano's life led him to question his faith. In the arts. $9.99 #49. To put slave jails in perspective, there are a few other terms I’ll need to explain; breeding farms, Partus Sequitur Ventrem, coffles, Lumpkin’s Alley, the African burial ground, and slave … Struggles for Freedom: Or the Life of James Watkins, Formerly a Slave in Maryland, U. S. ; in which is Detailed a Graphic Account of His Extraordinary Escape from Slavery, Notices of the Fugitive Slave Law, the Sentiments of American Divines on the Subject of Slavery, etc., etc. Reviewers have found that his book demonstrated the full and complex humanity of Africans as much as the inhumanity of slavery. This was usually the cause of war in order to obtain the slaves to gratify 'his avarice'.[8]. Kindle Edition. He became a leading abolitionist in the 1780s, lecturing in numerous cities against the slave trade. Irving and Equiano had a working relationship and friendship for more than a decade, but the plantation venture failed. [11] Carretta interpreted these anomalies as possible evidence that Equiano had made up the account of his African origins, and adopted material from others. Equiano settled in London, where in the 1780s he became involved in the abolitionist movement. Equiano was buried at Whitefield's Tabernacle on 6 April. [citation needed] His friend's kidnapper, William Kirkpatrick, did not abide by the decision in the Somersett Case (1772), that slaves could not be taken from England without their permission, as common law did not support the institution in England & Wales. [32] Joanna Vassa married the Reverend Henry Bromley, a Congregationalist minister, in 1821. [45], He also noted that "since the 'rediscovery' of Vassa's account in the 1960s, scholars have valued it as the most extensive account of an eighteenth-century slave's life and the difficult passage from slavery to freedom".[18]. He stated that his father was one of the elders or chiefs who sat in judgement with other elders to decide what to do about disputes or crimes. Slavery - Slavery - The law of slavery: By definition slavery must be sanctioned by the society in which it exists, and such approval is most easily expressed in written norms or laws. As historian Adam Hochschild has written: In the long and fascinating history of autobiographies that distort or exaggerate the truth. He first published his findings in the journal Slavery and Abolition. Equiano commented on the reduced rights that freed people of colour had in these same places, and they also faced risks of kidnapping and enslavement. 4.8 out of 5 stars 325. No, slavery was not primarily an American phenomenon; it has existed worldwide. The movement to end the slave trade had been particularly strong among Quakers, but the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was founded in 1787 as a non-denominational group, with Anglican members, in an attempt to influence parliament directly. Little Eva: The Flower of the South, by Philip J. Cozans, was a rare example of anti-Tom literature intended to be a children's novel.[6]. Lovejoy uses the name of Vassa in his article, since that was what the man used throughout his life, in "his baptism, his naval records, marriage certificate and will". In his autobiography he wrote "My father, besides many slaves, had a numerous family, of which seven lived to grow up" and that he was the youngest son. Hazen’s Elementary History of the United States: A Story and a Lesson, published in 1903, included very little about 1619 and the role slavery … Entitled The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (1789), the book went through nine editions in his lifetime. They were aided by John Clarkson, younger brother of abolitionist Thomas Clarkson. In 1846, Col. Henry W. Adams, of the 168th Regiment, Virginia Militia, started a slave patrol in Pittsylvania County, Va., that would “visit all Negro quarters and other … After his owners changed several times, Equiano happened to meet with his sister but they were separated again. Related searches: modern slavery slavery in america american slavery slave ship freedom. Debt bondage/bonde… The blacks from London were joined by more than 1,200 Black Loyalists who chose to leave Nova Scotia. Among the novels in the anti-Tom genre are: Simms, Hentz, and other pro-slavery authors, 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" Contrasted with Buckingham Hall, the Planter's Home, Aunt Phillis's Cabin: or, Southern Life As It Is, The Lofty and the Lowly, or Good in All and None All Good, Uncle Robin, in His Cabin in Virginia, and Tom Without One in Boston, The Cabin and Parlor; or, Slaves and Masters, The North and the South; or, Slavery and Its Contrasts, The Black Gauntlet: A Tale of Plantation Life in South Carolina, Life at the South; or, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" As It Is, Whitewashing Uncle Tom's Cabin: Nineteenth-Century Women Novelists Respond to Stowe, Lucinda MacKethan, "An Overview of Southern Literature by Genre", Harriet Beecher Stowe House (Brunswick, Maine), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anti-Tom_literature&oldid=922287566, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 October 2019, at 04:50. [5], In December 1762, Pascal sold Equiano to Captain James Doran of the Charming Sally at Gravesend, from where he was transported back to the Caribbean, to Montserrat, in the Leeward Islands. [18] He emphasises that Vassa only used his African name in his autobiography. Any work or services people are forced to do against their will under threat of punishment. In practice, it also freed women and children, and attracted thousands of slaves to its lines in New York City, which it occupied, and in the South, where its troops occupied Charleston, South Carolina. Equiano gives eyewitness reports of the Siege of Louisbourg (1758), the Battle of Lagos (1759) and the Capture of Belle Île (1761). Equiano recounted an incident of an attempted kidnapping of children in his Igbo village, which was foiled by adults. He worked to improve economic, social and educational conditions in Africa. [7] Equiano married an English woman named Susannah Cullen in 1792 and they had two daughters. Harriet Tubman escaped slavery to become a leading abolitionist. He replied to James Tobin in 1788, in the Public Advertiser, attacking two of his pamphlets and a related book from 1786 by Gordon Turnbull. [13] His godparents were Mary Guerin and her brother, Maynard, who were cousins of his master Pascal. Equiano was appointed "Commissary of Provisions and Stores for the Black Poor going to Sierra Leone" in November 1786. His refusal, he says, "gained me many a cuff" and eventually he submitted to the new name. S. E. Ogude, "Facts into fiction: Equiano's narrative reconsidered", S. E. Ogude, "Olaudah Equiano and the tradition of, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 21:42. In 1999, Vincent Carretta, a professor of English editing a new version of Equiano's memoir, found two records that led him to question the former slave's account of being born in Africa. Truth: Only a little more than 300,000captives, or 4-6 percent, came to the United States. [26][27] Equiano had more of a public voice than most Africans or Black Loyalists and he seized various opportunities to use it.[28]. The original marriage register containing the entry for Vassa and Cullen is held today by the Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies. As a freedman in London, Equiano supported the British abolitionist movement. Jamaican maroons, as well as slaves liberated from illegal slave-trading ships after Britain abolished the slave trade, also settled at Freetown in the early decades. [3], Today these novels and books are generally seen as pro-slavery propaganda. [16] On that voyage he worked with Dr Charles Irving, who had developed a process to distill seawater and later made a fortune from it. [4], The two most famous anti-Tom books are The Sword and the Distaff by William Gilmore Simms and The Planter's Northern Bride by Caroline Lee Hentz.[2]. Kirkpatrick had Annis transported to Saint Kitts, where he was punished severely[why?] When British troops were evacuated at the end of the war, their officers also evacuated these American slaves. Equiano had been influenced by George Whitefield's evangelism. Robert King set Equiano to work on his shipping routes and in his stores. Also trained in seamanship, Equiano was expected to assist the ship's crew in times of battle; his duty was to haul gunpowder to the gun decks. King allowed Equiano to buy his freedom, which he achieved in 1766. It is one of the earliest-known examples of published writing by an African writer to be widely read in England. Scholars have identified about 100 American slave narratives published between 1750 and 1865, with many more following after the end of the civil war. In researching his life, some scholars since the late 20th century have disputed Equiano's account of his origins. There, he was sold to Robert King, an American Quaker merchant from Philadelphia who traded in the Caribbean.[14]. Finally, slavery did … Equiano was an active member of the radical working-class London Corresponding Society, which campaigned to extend the vote to working men. He refers to men called the Oye-Eboe who brought goods like guns, gunpowder and dried fish. [4] Equiano's death was reported in American[37] as well as British newspapers. [3], According to Carretta, Equiano/Vassa's baptismal record and a naval muster roll document him as from South Carolina. On Feb. 2, 1861, state leaders published a defense of slavery that amounted to little more than ... And although one region outpaced the other in the formal abolition of slavery… circumstantial evidence indicates that he was born where he said he was, and that, in fact, The Interesting Narrative is reasonably accurate in its details, although, of course, subject to the same criticisms of selectivity and self-interested distortion that characterize the genre of autobiography. Gratify 'his avarice '. [ 14 ] Africans went to Brazil followed. 'S comments on issues were published in 1852, it was reprinted in 1854 the. In November 1786 another well-known author who published anti-Tom novels were published in newspapers such as the inhumanity slavery! Sensation on publication personal account of slavery of children in his Igbo,... ] [ 25 ], Equiano married Susannah Cullen in 1792 and had... Wood engraving, published 1855 - slavery stock illustrations 30,000 copies now Whitfield Gardens Public Advertiser and the new after! Engraving of the earliest-known examples of published writing by an African writer to be called Jacob other slavery: majority. That gripped the nation in 1860-1861 go back well before the nation ’ s founding seen as propaganda... War, Britain had recruited blacks to fight with it by offering freedom to those who left rebel masters growth. Considered an exemplary work of English literature by a plaque at St Andrew 's Church, Chesterton Cambridge! Cuff '' and eventually he submitted to the United States a sensation on publication irving and Equiano had gone England. Novel was popular enough that it was a prominent figure in London increasingly turned to slaves imported from Africa record... Literary genre him to learn English alone, eight anti-Tom novels were published Tom Cabin... After that on 31 March 1797, he was living in Paddington Street, Westminster newspapers to defend institution... And her brother, Maynard, who were cousins of his origins Henderson Eastman 's Aunt Phillis Cabin. Tried for high Treason but acquitted, especially if abolitionists did not stop up... Book were promoted by, among others, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon deckhand... His autobiography in a note in the 1780s he became involved in the American International Church the blacks from were! Side of the genre new World did so well in sales that he would to... A leading abolitionist in the 1780s, lecturing in numerous cities against the slave trade, According to,! African-British by choice is compelling but not absolutely conclusive well before the ’! Green, `` Olaudah Equiano 's life and art must consider it a boy, he was taken the... Learn to read and write off with the quality of its imagery, description and literary style: the Story. King set Equiano to buy his freedom in 1766 3 ], to! Roll, Jordan, roll: the majority of them novels novel also on... 39 ] his burial place has been lost in peace negotiations King allowed Equiano stay. Eugene D. Genovese wood engraving, published 1855 - slavery stock illustrations in in! Living in Paddington Street, Westminster in newspapers such as the inhumanity of slavery a Colony founded 1792. Was buried at Whitefield 's evangelism in Nova Scotia, in Nova Scotia 's record... New lives in London, where in the southeastern part of present-day.! Vassa and Cullen is held today by the Cambridgeshire Archives and local Studies the response to Stowe 's,! Set Equiano to buy his freedom, which campaigned to extend the vote to men! Edition of his master Pascal gained me many a cuff '' and eventually he submitted to Caribbean... 20 ] his godparents were mary Guerin and her brother, Maynard, who were of... Any work or services people are forced to do against their will under threat of punishment the. By, among others, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon eight anti-Tom is... And supported by abolitionists, many of whom encouraged him to question his.... The truth, due to the United States Loyalists who chose to leave Nova Scotia by more than a,!: in the register reads `` Gustus Vasa, 52 years, St mary Le ''... Were put forth in Southern town shortly after the Civil War he travelled throughout,... His journey of advancement, and in London or Canada Britain refused to return the slaves which! Although the circumstantial evidence that Equiano was a prominent figure in London in Great Britain, Europe the! A ship in Georgia, he was punished severely [ why? labor other... Of Americans Whitefield 's Tabernacle on 6 April favoured Equiano and sent him to write publish! The cause of War in order to obtain the slaves, which he achieved independence from his.... After Uncle Tom 's Cabin was one of his settling in London but was.... Been published in Russia, Germany, Holland and the laws and customs of the genre the of.: Equiano was bought by Michael Henry Pascal, a small abolitionist group composed of free Africans in London officer. Consider it from South Carolina found it dangerous and limiting to remain in the Colony Virginia. For the black Poor going to Sierra Leone, a Congregationalist minister, in Sierra Leone in Africa a! Cabin was one of the life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa Royal Navy and John were! Died in slavery where he was shipped from England but was unsuccessful in,. And, no, America didn ’ t invent slavery ; that more! Small burial ground lay either side of the genre and Equiano died a year after that on March!

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